Modifiers can usually be identified by location — they apply to the noun nearest them. But when the writer or speaker leaves out the noun they intend to modify, the results can be confusing.
INCORRECT: Having finished dinner, the TV was turned on in the living room.
Who finished dinner? The TV? In this sentence structure, “having finished dinner” is the dangling modifier and we don’t know what it is referring to.
CORRECT: “Having finished dinner, the family turned on the TV in the living room.”
In the corrected example, “having finished dinner” is no longer dangling. It refers to the closest noun, the subject of the following clause. It is modifying “the family” and what they are doing.
You can correct a dangling modifier by turning the modifying phrase into a complete subordinate clause. That means the modifying phrase must contain a subject and a verb.
INCORRECT: Having overslept again, the bus left without him.
Who overslept? The bus? “Having overslept” is a dangling modifier here. Let’s clean it up.
CORRECT: Sam overslept again, so the bus left without him.
The dangling modifier is corrected by adding a subject (Sam) to the verb (overslept). You could also use a pronoun (he) and the modifier would still be correct.
Another way to correct a dangling modifier is to move around the location of the words. You typically want the modifier to be next to the word it modifies.
INCORRECT: After a long journey, the comfortable bed was perfect for a nap. See More . . .